The Government of India has enacted the Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991 (amended in1992). The Act provides for immediate relief to persons affected by accidents occurring while handling the notified hazardous substances. Relief is provided in the event of death or injury to persons or damage to private property. For this purpose, the owner of the industrial unit handling such hazardous substances is required to obtain one or more insurance policies. The Act also provides for establishing the Environment Relief Fund (ERF). In case the amount of relief awarded by the Collector exceeds the amount payable under the insurance policy purchased by the owner or exceeds the liability of the insurance company, ERF is to be utilized for paying claims.